In a variety of situations, one is required to make calculations in terms of percentage or percent as it is commonly called.

Conversion to or from percentages are very common and a source of great confusion to many people. So the natural question that arises is what is the meaning of percent ?

The word percent (per cent) How do you find a percentage using a calculator literally means per hundred units of something . So when you say 25% of something, it means 25 units per 100 hundred units of the total. The word percentage and percent are often used interchangeably.

Now that we know what is meant by percent, the real concern is how to actually calculate percentages. The wording of various percentage questions can be a little tricky but here is a complete easy tutorial of calculating percentages.

The meaning of x% of y means that out of a total of y, what will be the value of 33%. When you are asked to find x % of y, it is calculated as

Ans: Here, x=33 and y=50. So we will find 33% of 50 as:

33 x 50 ÷ 100 = 16.5

Another aspect we are faced with is to find what percent of a total is a given figure. For example, if you have scored 45 marks in a test which was of total marks of 100, then to find what percent of 60 is 45, we will have to convert the two figures into a fraction in the format - Given Figure (y/x) and then multiply it with 100 to convert it into percent.

Total Figure

So the formula you must use is:

Given Figure x 100 ÷ Total Figure

This may be another way to twist around a question of simple percentage. But the meaning and approach to solve it is really simple and you just need to crack the meaning of the statement first to understand it properly. When it is asked: What is x if P% of it is y?, the meaning is that a x is the total figure and P% of it is y, I.e. The total amount is x, the percentage is P and the calculated answer of P% of x is equal to y. You are given the value of y and P and you have to find out x. To calculate this, you have to use the simple formula:

Another common calculation in the context of percentages involves the question of percentage increase or decrease. These questions are commonly involved in stocks, sensex, discounts, population rates, profit and loss, overall performance over years and many more

So it is important to understand how a percentage increase or decrease is calculated. The first thing to keep in mind is that the increase/decrease is always calculated against the original figure.

- The first step is to find out the numerical increase or decrease in the values (in the unit of the original figures). This is done by:
- Subtracting the new value from the original value in case of a decrease.
- Subtracting the original value from the new/changed value in case of an increase.
- After this, you have to find out the proportion of the increase/decrease, in comparison to the original value. This is done by taking the numerical increase/decrease as the numerator and the original value as the denominator, i.e. Numerical Increase / Decrease ÷ Original Value
- To find the percentage increase or decrease, all you have to do is multiply the above fraction by 100

To sum up the entire process, here we have provided easy formulae that you can use:

To think about it, a percentage is also a fraction. As the word per cent itself means, per hundred, it represents a fraction, so 39% would mean 39 out of every 100 units or in other words, 39/100.

A fraction consists of a numerator (numerical value which occurs above the fraction line) and the denominator (numerical value which occurs below the fraction line).

To convert a percentage into a fraction, write the percent value as the numerator and take 100 as the denominator and then reduce it to the lowest possible value in terms of canceling through common factors.

To do the vice versa, i.e. to convert the fraction to a percent, you have to simply multiply the fraction by 100 and find the percent value. So if you have to convert the fraction 3 ÷ 5 into a percent, you can do it as follows:

3 ÷ 5 x 100

= 60%

The conversion of a percentage to decimal and vice versa is the simplest. All you have to remember is two thumb rules:

- If you want to convert a percent to decimals, move the decimal point two places to the left from the one‘s place.
- If you want to convert a decimal to a percentage, simply multiply the figure by 100 or move the decimal point two places to the right.

It‘s really that simple!!

Fractions, Ratios, Percents and Decimals are interrelated with each other. Let us look at the conversion of one form to another:

S.no | Ratio | Fraction | Percent(%) | Decimal |

1 | 1:1 | 1/1 | 100 | 1 |

2 | 1:2 | 1/2 | 50 | 0.5 |

3 | 1:3 | 1/3 | 33.333 | 0.3333 |

4 | 1:4 | 1/4 | 25 | 0.25 |

5 | 1:5 | 1/5 | 20 | 0.20 |

6 | 1:6 | 1/6 | 16.667 | 0.16667 |

7 | 1:7 | 1/7 | 14.285 | 0.14285 |

8 | 1:8 | 1/8 | 12.5 | 0.125 |

9 | 1:9 | 1/9 | 11.111 | 0.11111 |

10 | 1:10 | 1/10 | 10 | 0.10 |

11 | 1:11 | 1/11 | 9.0909 | 0.0909 |

12 | 1:12 | 1/12 | 8.333 | 0.08333 |

13 | 1:15 | 1/13 | 7.692 | 0.07692 |

14 | 1:14 | 1/14 | 7.142 | 0.07142 |

15 | 1:15 | 1/15 | 6.66 | 0.0666 |

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A percentage calculator works by converting a given fraction or decimal to a percent figure.

For converting a figure to percent, you must find the total figure against which it is being compared, and then multiply the obtained fraction by 100 by using the formula:

Given Figure x 100 ÷ Total Figure

To find 20% of a number, simply multiply the number by 20/100.

Two find the percentage difference between two numbers, subtract the smaller number from the larger number and then find the fraction with respect to the two numbers and multiply by 100, i.e. once with respect to the smaller number and once with respect to the larger number.

To calculate percentage increase or decrease, use the formula:

Larger Value-Smaller Value x 100 ÷ Original Value

To calculate the discounted price of a product, follow these simple steps:

- Convert the percent to fraction, i.e. x% becomes x/100
- Multiply the fraction with the original price of the product, i.e. x ÷ 100, x Original Price of Product.
- Subtract the obtained value from the original price, the answer will be your discounted price.

To find the discount percent of a product, use the formula:

Discount Amount x 100 ÷ Original Price

To convert a percent to fraction (e.g. x%), simply write it in fraction form as x ÷ 100 and then reduce it to the simplest terms

To calculate percent using a calculator, write the fraction, for e.g. 65 out of a total of 80, as 65 / 80 and then simply click on the ’%‘ button on the calculator. This gives you the percentage of 65 out of a total of 80.

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